The Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science will be available via subscription on April 26. Visit About to learn more, meet the editorial board, or recommend to your librarian.


You are looking at  1-10 of 10 articles  for:

  • Climate Systems and Climate Dynamics x
  • Future Climate Change Scenarios x
Clear All


Aerosols and Climate  

Bjørn H. Samset

Among the factors that affect the climate, few are as diverse and challenging to understand as aerosols. Minute particles suspended in the atmosphere, aerosols are emitted through a wide ... More

Atmospheric Blocking in Observation and Models  

Stefano Tibaldi and Franco Molteni

The atmospheric circulation in the mid-latitudes of both hemispheres is usually dominated by westerly winds and by planetary-scale and shorter-scale synoptic waves, moving mostly from west ... More

Changes in Precipitation over Southern Africa during Recent Centuries  

David Nash

Precipitation levels in southern Africa exhibit a marked east–west gradient and are characterized by strong seasonality and high interannual variability. Much of the mainland south of 15°S ... More

Climate Change Scenarios and African Climate Change  

Kerry H. Cook

Accurate projections of climate change under increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels are needed to evaluate the environmental cost of anthropogenic emissions, and to guide mitigation ... More

Climate of Southern Africa  

C.J.C. Reason

Southern Africa extends from the equator to about 34°S and is essentially a narrow, peninsular land mass bordered to its south, west, and east by oceans. Its termination in the mid-ocean ... More

Desertification and Re-Greening of the Sahel  

Rasmus Fensholt, Cheikh Mbow, Martin Brandt, and Kjeld Rasmussen

In the past 50 years, human activities and climatic variability have caused major environmental changes in the semi-arid Sahelian zone and desertification/degradation of arable lands is of ... More

Downscaling Climate Information  

Rasmus Benestad

What are the local consequences of a global climate change? This question is important for proper handling of risks associated with weather and climate. It also tacitly assumes that there ... More

Evolving Paradigms of Climatic Processes and Atmospheric Circulation Affecting Africa  

Sharon E. Nicholson

Classic paradigms describing meteorological phenomena and climate have changed dramatically over the last half-century. This is particularly true for the continent of Africa. Our ... More

Impact of Land–Atmosphere Interactions on Sahel Climate  

Yongkang Xue

The Sahel of Africa has been identified as having the strongest land–atmosphere (L/A) interactions on Earth. The Sahelian L/A interaction studies started in the late 1970s. However, due to ... More

Sun-Climate Connections  

Judith L. Lean

Emergent in recent decades are robust specifications and understanding of connections between the Sun’s changing radiative energy and Earth’s changing climate and atmosphere. This follows ... More