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The Indian Ocean Dipole  

Saji N. Hameed

Discovered at the very end of the 20th century, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is a mode of natural climate variability that arises out of coupled ocean–atmosphere interaction in the Indian ... More

Climate Dynamics of ENSO Modoki Phenomena  

Swadhin Behera and Toshio Yamagata

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The El Niño Modoki/La Niña Modoki (ENSO Modoki) is a newly acknowledged face of ocean-atmosphere coupled variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean. The oceanic and atmospheric conditions ... More

Tectonic Dynamics in the African Rift Valley and Climate Change  

Uwe Ring

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
The East African Rift System (EARS) transecting the high-elevation East African plateau is one of the most outstanding rift systems on earth. Rifting was caused by a huge uprising mantle ... More

Multiple Equilibria in the Climate System  

Henk A. Dijkstra

The idea that under the same external forcing conditions, the climate system is able to have several (statistical) equilibrium states is both fascinating and worrying: fascinating because ... More

Climate of Eastern Africa  

Pierre Camberlin

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Eastern Africa, classically presented as a major dry climate anomaly region in the otherwise wet equatorial belt, is a transition zone between the monsoon domains of West Africa and the ... More

Climate Change Scenarios and African Climate Change  

Kerry H. Cook

Accurate projections of climate change under increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels are needed to evaluate the environmental cost of anthropogenic emissions, and to guide mitigation ... More

Atmospheric Blocking in Observation and Models  

Stefano Tibaldi and Franco Molteni

The atmospheric circulation in the mid-latitudes of both hemispheres is usually dominated by westerly winds and by planetary-scale and shorter-scale synoptic waves, moving mostly from west ... More

Adaptation to Current and Future Climate in Pastoral Communities Across Africa  

Edna Wangui

Pastoralists around the world are exposed to climate change and increasing climate variability. Various downscaled regional climate models in Africa support community reports of rising ... More

The Climate Change Regime  

Philipp Pattberg and Oscar Widerberg

In 1992, when the international community agreed on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the science of climate change was under development, global ... More

The Development of Climate Science of the Baltic Sea Region  

Anders Omstedt

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Dramatic climate changes have occurred in the Baltic Sea region caused by changes in orbital movement in the earth–sun system and the melting of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. Added to these ... More