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Aerosols and Climate  

Bjørn H. Samset

Among the factors that affect the climate, few are as diverse and challenging to understand as aerosols. Minute particles suspended in the atmosphere, aerosols are emitted through a wide ... More

Atmospheric Blocking in Observation and Models  

Stefano Tibaldi and Franco Molteni

The atmospheric circulation in the mid-latitudes of both hemispheres is usually dominated by westerly winds and by planetary-scale and shorter-scale synoptic waves, moving mostly from west ... More

Changes in Precipitation Over Southern Africa During Recent Centuries  

David Nash

Precipitation levels in southern Africa exhibit a marked east–west gradient and are characterized by strong seasonality and high interannual variability. Much of the mainland south of 15°S ... More

Climate Change and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Pierre Friedlingstein

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Climate and carbon cycle are tightly coupled on many time scales, from the interannual to the multimillennial. Observation always shows a positive feedback between climate and the carbon ... More

Climate Change Scenarios and African Climate Change  

Kerry H. Cook

Accurate projections of climate change under increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels are needed to evaluate the environmental cost of anthropogenic emissions, and to guide mitigation ... More

Climate Dynamics of ENSO Modoki Phenomena  

Swadhin Behera and Toshio Yamagata

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The El Niño Modoki/La Niña Modoki (ENSO Modoki) is a newly acknowledged face of ocean-atmosphere coupled variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean. The oceanic and atmospheric conditions ... More

Climate of Southern Africa  

C.J.C. Reason

Southern Africa extends from the equator to about 34°S and is essentially a narrow, peninsular land mass bordered to its south, west, and east by oceans. Its termination in the mid-ocean ... More

Clustering Techniques in Climate Analysis  

David M. Straus

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Desertification and Re-Greening of the Sahel  

Rasmus Fensholt, Cheikh Mbow, Martin Brandt, and Kjeld Rasmussen

In the past 50 years, human activities and climatic variability have caused major environmental changes in the semi-arid Sahelian zone and desertification/degradation of arable lands is of ... More

Downscaling Climate Information  

Rasmus Benestad

What are the local consequences of a global climate change? This question is important for proper handling of risks associated with weather and climate. It also tacitly assumes that there ... More

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