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Atmospheric Blocking in Observation and Models  

Stefano Tibaldi and Franco Molteni

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
The atmospheric circulation in the mid-latitudes of both hemispheres is usually dominated by westerly winds and by planetary-scale and shorter-scale synoptic waves, moving mostly from west ... More

Changes in Precipitation over Southern Africa during Recent Centuries  

David Nash

Precipitation levels in southern Africa exhibit a marked east–west gradient and are characterized by strong seasonality and high interannual variability. Much of the mainland south of 15°S ... More

Dynamics of the Indian Summer Monsoon Climate  

B.N. Goswami and Soumi Chakravorty

Lifeline for about one-sixth of the world’s population in the subcontinent, the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) is an integral part of the annual cycle of the winds (reversal of winds with ... More

Impact of Land–Atmosphere Interactions on Sahel Climate  

Yongkang Xue

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The Sahel of Africa has been identified as having the strongest land–atmosphere (L/A) interactions on Earth. The Sahelian L/A interaction studies started in the late 1970s. However, due to ... More

Interannual Variability of the Indian Monsoon and Its Link to ENSO  

Fred Kucharski and Muhammad Adnan Abid

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The interannual variability of Indian summer monsoon is probably one of the most intensively studied phenomena in the research area of climate variability. This is because even relatively ... More

Multiple Equilibria in the Climate System  

Henk A. Dijkstra

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
The idea that under the same external forcing conditions, the climate system is able to have several (statistical) equilibrium states is both fascinating and worrying: fascinating because ... More

North Atlantic Oscillation  

Edward Hanna and Thomas E. Cropper

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Many variations in the weather in the European and North Atlantic regions are linked with changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO is measured using a south-minus-north ... More

Ocean Mixing  

Carl Wunsch

Online publication date:
May 2017
Oceanic mixing is one of the major determinants of the ocean circulation and its climatological influences. Existing distributions of mixing properties determine the rates of storage and ... More

Predictability of Decadal Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Variations  

Florian Sévellec and Bablu Sinha

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Predictability of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)  

Jing-Jia Luo

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

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